March 1, 1961
- President of the United States John F. Kennedy establishes the Peace Corps.
March 2, 1791
- Long-distance communication speeds up with the unveiling of a semaphore machine in Paris.
March 2, 1811
- A royalist fleet defeats a small flotilla of revolutionary ships in the Battle of San Nicolás on the River Plate.
March 2, 1933
- The film King Kong
opens at New York's Radio City Music Hall.
March 4, 1791
- Vermont is admitted to the U.S. as the fourteenth state.
March 4, 1970
- French submarine Eurydice
explodes underwater, resulting in the loss of the entire 57-man crew.
March 5, 1943
- First flight of Gloster Meteor jet aircraft in the United Kingdom.
March 7, 1814
- Emperor Napoleon I of France wins the Battle of Craonne.
March 7, 1965
- A group of 600 civil rights marchers are forcefully broken up in Selma, Alabama.
March 7, 1985
- The song "We Are the World" has its international release.
March 8, 1618
- Johannes Kepler discovers the third law of planetary motion.
March 9, 1811
- Paraguayan forces defeat Manuel Belgrano at the Battle of Tacuarí.
March 9, 1959
- The Barbie doll makes its debut at the American International Toy Fair in New York.
March 9, 1961
- Sputnik 9 successfully launches, carrying a human dummy nicknamed Ivan Ivanovich, and demonstrating that Soviet Union was ready to begin human spaceflight.
March 10, 241 BC
- Battle of the Aegates Islands – The Romans sink the Carthaginian fleet bringing the First Punic War to an end.
March 10, 1830
- The KNIL also known as the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army is created.
March 11, 1649
- The Frondeurs and the French sign the Peace of Rueil.
March 11, 1851
- The first performance of Rigoletto
by Giuseppe Verdi takes place in Venice.
March 11, 1927
- In New York City, Samuel Roxy Rothafel opens the Roxy Theatre.
March 12, 1918
- Moscow becomes the capital of Russia again after Saint Petersburg held this status for 215 years.
March 13, 1988
- The Seikan Tunnel, the longest undersea tunnel in the world, opens between Aomori and Hakodate, Japan.
March 15, 1311
- The Catalan Company defeats Walter V of Brienne to take control of the Duchy of Athens, a Crusader state in Greece.
March 15, 1956
- My Fair Lady
premiered on Broadway at the Mark Hellinger Theatre.
March 16, 1322
- The Battle of Boroughbridge take place in the Despenser Wars.
March 16, 1926
- Robert Goddard launched the first liquid-fueled rocket.
March 16, 1968
- In the My Lai massacre, between 350 and 500 Vietnamese villagers (men, women, and children) are killed by American troops.
March 18, 1925
- The Tri-State Tornado hits the Midwestern states of Missouri, Illinois, and Indiana, killing 695 people.
March 18, 1937
- The New London School explosion kills three hundred, mostly children.
March 18, 1965
- Cosmonaut Aleksei Leonov, leaving his spacecraft Voskhod 2 for 12 minutes, becomes the first person to walk in space.
March 19, 1279
- A Mongolian victory Battle of Yamen ends the Song Dynasty in China.
March 19, 1895
- Auguste and Louis Lumière record their first footage using their newly patented cinematograph.
March 20, 1815
- After escaping from Elba, Napoleon enters Paris with a regular army of 140,000 and a volunteer force of around 200,000, beginning his "Hundred Days" rule.
March 20, 1916
- Albert Einstein publishes his general theory of relativity.
March 21, 1788
- A fire in New Orleans leaves most of the town in ruins.
March 21, 1963
- Alcatraz, a federal penitentiary on an island in San Francisco Bay, closes.
March 21, 1968
- Battle of Karameh in Jordan between Israeli Defense Forces and Fatah.
March 22, 1622
- Algonquian Indians kill 347 English settlers around Jamestown, Virginia, a third of the colony's population.
March 22, 1638
- Anne Hutchinson is expelled from Massachusetts Bay Colony for religious dissent.
March 22, 1942
- In the Mediterranean Sea, the Royal Navy confronts Italy's Regia Marina in the Second Battle of Sirte.
March 23, 1879
- The Battle of Topáter, the first battle of the war is fought between Chile and the joint forces of Bolivia and Peru.
March 23, 1965
- NASA launches Gemini 3, the United States' first two-man space flight.
March 23, 2001
- The Russian Mir
space station is disposed of, breaking up in the atmosphere before falling into the southern Pacific Ocean near Fiji.
March 24, 1860
- Assassination of Japanese Chief Minister (Tairō) Ii Naosuke
March 24, 1882
- Robert Koch announces the discovery of mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacterium responsible for tuberculosis.
March 25, 1807
- The Swansea and Mumbles Railway, then known as the Oystermouth Railway, becomes the first passenger carrying railway in the world.
March 25, 1911
- In New York City, the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire kills 146 garment workers.
March 26, 1830
- The Book of Mormon is published in Palmyra, New York.
March 26, 1975
- The Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) comes into force.
March 27, 1794
- The United States Government establishes a permanent navy and authorizes the building of six frigates.
March 27, 1964
- The Good Friday Earthquake, the most powerful earthquake in U.S. history at a magnitude of 9.2 strikes South Central Alaska, killing 125 people and inflicting massive damage to the city of Anchorage.
March 27, 1975
- Construction of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System begins.
March 28, 1910
- Henri Fabre becomes the first person to fly a seaplane, the Fabre Hydravion, after taking off from a water runway near Martigues, France.
March 28, 2005
- The 2005 Sumatra earthquake rocks Indonesia, and at magnitude 8.7 is the fourth strongest earthquake since 1965.
March 29, 1461
- Battle of Towton – Edward of York defeats Queen Margaret to become King Edward IV of England.
March 29, 1886
- Dr. John Pemberton brews the first batch of Coca-Cola in a backyard in Atlanta, Georgia.
March 29, 1974
- NASA's Mariner 10 becomes the first spaceprobe to fly by Mercury.
March 30, 1842
- Anesthesia is used for the first time, in an operation by the American surgeon Dr. Crawford Long.
March 30, 1867
- Alaska is purchased from Russia for $7.2 million, about 2 cent/acre ($4.19/km²), by United States Secretary of State William H. Seward.
March 30, 1939
- The Heinkel He 100 fighter sets a world airspeed record of 746.606 km/h (463.919 mph).
March 31, 1966
- The Soviet Union launches Luna 10 which later becomes the first space probe to enter orbit around the Moon.