(March 21, 1763 - November 14, 1825)
Jean Paul was a German Romantic writer, best known for his humorous novels and stories.
Johann Gottfried Herder
(August 25, 1744 - December 18, 1803)
Johann Gottfried von Herder was a German philosopher, theologian, poet, and literary critic. He is associated with the periods of Enlightenment, Sturm und Drang, and Weimar Classicism.
Gotthold Ephraim Lessing
(January 22, 1729 - February 15, 1781)
Gotthold Ephraim Lessing was a German writer, philosopher, dramatist, publicist, and art critic, and one of the most outstanding representatives of the Enlightenment era. His plays and theoretical writings substantially influenced the development of German literature. He is widely considered by theatre historians to be the first dramaturg.
(July 24, 1864 - March 9, 1918)
Benjamin Franklin Wedekind, usually known as Frank Wedekind, was a German playwright. His work, which often criticizes bourgeois attitudes (particularly towards sex), is considered to anticipate expressionism, and he was a major influence on the development of epic theatre.
(March 15, 1830 - April 2, 1914)
Paul Johann Ludwig von Heyse was a distinguished German writer and translator. A member of two important literary societies, the Tunnel über der Spree
in Berlin and Die Krokodile
in Munich, he wrote novels, poetry, 177 short stories, and about sixty dramas. The sum of Heyse's many and varied productions made him a dominant figure among German men of letters.
, Nobel laureate
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
(August 28, 1749 - March 22, 1832)
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe was a German writer, pictorial artist, biologist, theoretical physicist, and polymath. He is considered the supreme genius of modern German literature. His works span the fields of poetry, drama, prose, philosophy, and science. His Faust
has been called the greatest long poem of modern European literature. His other well-known literary works include his numerous poems, the Bildungsroman Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship
, and the epistolary novel The Sorrows of Young Werther
, German writer
August von Kotzebue
(May 3, 1761 - March 23, 1819)
August Friedrich Ferdinand von Kotzebue was a German dramatist and author who also worked as a Generalkonsul
in Russia. One of Kotzebue's books was burned during the Wartburg festival in 1817. He was murdered in 1819 by Karl Ludwig Sand, a militant member of the Burschenschaften
. The murder of Kotzebue gave Metternich the pretext to issue the Carlsbad Decrees of 1819, which dissolved the Burschenschaften
, cracked down on the liberal press, and seriously restricted academic freedom in the states of the German Confederation.
(May 31, 1773 - April 28, 1853)
Johann Ludwig Tieck was a German poet, translator, editor, novelist, writer of Novellen, and critic, who was one of the founding fathers of the Romantic movement of the late 18th and early 19th centuries.