This Day In History
This Day In History
Wednesday, September 26, 2018

«mathematician»

October 18, 320

Pappus of Alexandria, Greek philosopher, observes an eclipse of the sun and writes a commentary on The Great Astronomer (Almagest). Pappus of Alexandria (c. 290 – c. 350) was one of the last great Greek mathematicians of Antiquity, known for his Synagoge or Collection (c. 340), and for Pappus's Theorem in projective geometry. Nothing is known of his life, except (from his own writings) that he had a son named Hermodorus, and was a teacher in Alexandria.
mathematician, Sun, eclipse

Pierre-Simon Girard

Pierre-Simon Girard
(November 4, 1765 - November 30, 1836)
Pierre-Simon Girard was a French mathematician and engineer, who worked on fluids.
French mathematician, mathematician, engineer

James Maxwell

James Maxwell
(June 13, 1831 - November 5, 1879)
James Clerk Maxwell of Glenlair was a Scottish physicist and mathematician. His most prominent achievement was formulating classical electromagnetic theory. This united all previously unrelated observations, experiments and equations of electricity, magnetism and even optics into a consistent theory.
Maxwell, Scottish physicist, physicist, mathematician

Omar Khayyam

Omar Khayyam
(May 18, 1048 - December 4, 1131)
Omar Khayyám was a Persian polymath: philosopher, mathematician, astronomer and poet. He also wrote treatises on mechanics, geography, mineralogy, music, climatology and theology.
Persian poet, poet, astronomer, mathematician, philosopher

George Boole

George Boole
(November 2, 1815 - December 8, 1864)
George Boole was an English mathematician and philosopher. As the inventor of Boolean logic—the basis of modern digital computer logic—Boole is regarded in hindsight as a founder of the field of computer science. Boole said,
English mathematician, mathematician, Boolean logic

Brook Taylor

Brook Taylor
(August 18, 1685 - November 30, 1731)
Brook Taylor was an English mathematician who is best known for Taylor's theorem and the Taylor series.
English mathematician, mathematician

Pierre de Fermat

Pierre de Fermat
(August 17, 1601 - January 12, 1665)
Pierre de Fermat was a French lawyer at the Parlement of Toulouse, France, and an amateur mathematician who is given credit for early developments that led to infinitesimal calculus, including his adequality.
French mathematician, mathematician

Joseph Louis Lagrange

Joseph Louis Lagrange
(January 25, 1736 - April 10, 1813)
Joseph-Louis Lagrange, born Giuseppe Lodovico (Luigi) Lagrangia, was a mathematician and astronomer born in Turin, Piedmont, who lived part of his life in Prussia and part in France.
Italian mathematician, mathematician, astronomer

Rene Descartes

Rene Descartes
(March 31, 1596 - February 11, 1650)
René Descartes was a French philosopher, mathematician, and writer who spent most of his adult life in the Dutch Republic. He has been dubbed the 'Father of Modern Philosophy', and much subsequent Western philosophy is a response to his writings, which are studied closely to this day. In particular, his Meditations on First Philosophy continues to be a standard text at most university philosophy departments.
French mathematician, mathematician, philosopher

Adam Olearius

Adam Olearius
(September 24, 1599 - February 22, 1671)
Adam Olearius, born Adam Ölschläger or Oehlschlaeger, was a German scholar, mathematician, geographer and librarian. He became secretary to the ambassador sent by Frederick III, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, to the Shah of Persia, and published two books about the events and observations during his travels.
German scholar, scholar, mathematician, geographer

Carl Friedrich Gauss

Carl Friedrich Gauss
(April 30, 1777 - February 23, 1855)
Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss was a German mathematician and physical scientist who contributed significantly to many fields, including number theory, statistics, analysis, differential geometry, geodesy, geophysics, electrostatics, astronomy and optics.
German mathematician, mathematician, physical

Claude Shannon

Claude Shannon
(April 30, 1916 - February 24, 2001)
Claude Elwood Shannon was an American mathematician, electronic engineer, and cryptographer known as "the father of information theory".
American mathematician, mathematician, electronic engineer

Christian Doppler

Christian Doppler
(November 29, 1803 - March 17, 1853)
Christian Andreas Doppler was an Austrian mathematician and physicist.
Austrian physicist, physicist, mathematician

Daniel Bernoulli

Daniel Bernoulli
(February 8, 1700 - March 17, 1782)
Daniel Bernoulli was a Dutch-Swiss mathematician and was one of the many prominent mathematicians in the Bernoulli family. He is particularly remembered for his applications of mathematics to mechanics, especially fluid mechanics, and for his pioneering work in probability and statistics. Bernoulli's work is still studied at length by many schools of science throughout the world.
Dutch mathematician, mathematician

Norbert Wiener

Norbert Wiener
(November 26, 1894 - March 18, 1964)
Norbert Wiener was an American mathematician. He was Professor of Mathematics at MIT. A famous child prodigy, Wiener later became an early researcher in stochastic and noise processes, contributing work relevant to electronic engineering, electronic communication, and control systems. Wiener is regarded as the originator of cybernetics, a formalization of the notion of feedback, with many implications for engineering, systems control, computer science, biology, philosophy, and the organization of society.
American mathematician, mathematician, cybernetics

Joseph Fourier

Joseph Fourier
(March 21, 1768 - May 16, 1830)
Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier was a French mathematician and physicist best known for initiating the investigation of Fourier series and their applications to problems of heat transfer and vibrations. The Fourier transform and Fourier's Law are also named in his honour. Fourier is also generally credited with the discovery of the greenhouse effect.
French mathematician, mathematician, physicist

Pierre-Simon Laplace

Pierre-Simon Laplace
(March 23, 1749 - March 5, 1827)
Pierre-Simon, marquis de Laplace was a French mathematician and astronomer whose work was pivotal to the development of mathematical astronomy and statistics. He summarized and extended the work of his predecessors in his five volume Mécanique Céleste (Celestial Mechanics) (1799–1825). This work translated the geometric study of classical mechanics to one based on calculus, opening up a broader range of problems. In statistics, the so-called Bayesian interpretation of probability was mainly developed by Laplace.
French mathematician, mathematician, astronomer

John Dee

John Dee
(July 13, 1527 - March 26, 1609)
John Dee was an English mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, occultist, navigator, imperialist and consultant to Queen Elizabeth I. He devoted much of his life to the study of alchemy, divination and Hermetic philosophy.
English mathematician, mathematician, astronomer, astrologer

Isaac Newton

Isaac Newton
(January 4, 1643 - March 31, 1727)
Sir Isaac Newton was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist, and theologian, who has been "considered by many to be the greatest and most influential scientist who ever lived."
English physicist, physicist, mathematician, astronomer

Thomas Bayes

Thomas Bayes
(1701-07.04.1761 )
Thomas Bayes was an English mathematician and Presbyterian minister, known for having formulated a specific case of the theorem that bears his name: Bayes' theorem. Bayes never published what would eventually become his most famous accomplishment; his notes were edited and published after his death by Richard Price.
English mathematician, mathematician

Christiaan Huygens

Christiaan Huygens
(April 14, 1629 - July 8, 1695)
Christiaan Huygens was a prominent Dutch mathematician, astronomer, physicist and horologist. His work included early telescopic studies elucidating the nature of the rings of Saturn and the discovery of its moon Titan, the invention of the pendulum clock and other investigations in timekeeping, and studies of both optics and the centrifugal force.
Dutch mathematician, mathematician, astronomer, physicist, horologist

Augustin-Louis Cauchy

Augustin-Louis Cauchy
(August 21, 1789 - May 23, 1857)
Baron Augustin-Louis Cauchy was a French mathematician who was an early pioneer of analysis. He started the project of formulating and proving the theorems of infinitesimal calculus in a rigorous manner, rejecting the heuristic principle of the generality of algebra exploited by earlier authors.
French mathematician, mathematician

Blaise Pascal

Blaise Pascal
(June 19, 1623 - August 19, 1662)
Blaise Pascal was a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and Catholic philosopher. He was a child prodigy who was educated by his father, a tax collector in Rouen. Pascal's earliest work was in the natural and applied sciences where he made important contributions to the study of fluids, and clarified the concepts of pressure and vacuum by generalizing the work of Evangelista Torricelli. Pascal also wrote in defense of the scientific method.
French mathematician, mathematician, physicist

Bernhard Riemann

Bernhard Riemann
(September 17, 1826 - July 20, 1866)
Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann was an influential German mathematician who made lasting contributions to analysis, number theory and differential geometry, some of them enabling the later development of general relativity.
German mathematician, mathematician

Felix Klein

Felix Klein
(April 25, 1849 - June 22, 1925)
Christian Felix Klein was a German mathematician, known for his work in group theory, complex analysis, non-Euclidean geometry, and on the connections between geometry and group theory. His 1872 Erlangen Program, classifying geometries by their underlying symmetry groups, was a hugely influential synthesis of much of the mathematics of the day.
German mathematician, mathematician

Sophie Germain

Sophie Germain
(April 1, 1776 - June 27, 1831)
Marie-Sophie Germain was a French mathematician, physicist and philosopher. Despite initial opposition from her parents and difficulties presented by a gender-biased society, she gained education from books in her father's library and from correspondence with famous mathematicians such as LaGrange, Legendre, and Gauss. One of the pioneers of elasticity theory, she won the grand prize from the Paris Academy of Sciences for her essay on the subject.
French mathematician, mathematician, physicist, philosopher
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