This Day In History
This Day In History
Sunday, May 20, 2018

«physicist»

Gustav Kirchhoff

Gustav Kirchhoff
(March 12, 1824 - October 17, 1887)
Gustav Robert Kirchhoff was a German physicist who contributed to the fundamental understanding of electrical circuits, spectroscopy, and the emission of black-body radiation by heated objects.
German physicist, physicist

Ernest Rutherford

Ernest Rutherford
(August 30, 1871 - October 19, 1937)
Ernest Rutherford was a New Zealand-born British chemist and physicist who became known as the father of nuclear physics. In early work he discovered the concept of radioactive half-life, proved that radioactivity involved the transmutation of one chemical element to another, and also differentiated and named alpha and beta radiation. This work was done at McGill University in Canada. It is the basis for the Nobel Prize in Chemistry he was awarded in 1908 "for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances".
Rutherford, nuclear physics, chemist, physicist

Wilhelm Weber

Wilhelm Weber
(October 24, 1804 - June 23, 1891)
Wilhelm Eduard Weber was a German physicist and, together with Carl Friedrich Gauss, inventor of the first electromagnetic telegraph.
Weber, telegraph, physicist, inventor

Lise Meitner

Lise Meitner
(November 7, 1878 - October 27, 1968)
Lise Meitner was an Austrian-born, later Swedish, physicist who worked on radioactivity and nuclear physics. Meitner was part of the team that discovered nuclear fission, an achievement for which her colleague Otto Hahn was awarded the Nobel Prize. Meitner is often mentioned as one of the most glaring examples of women's scientific achievement overlooked by the Nobel committee. A 1997 Physics Today study concluded that Meitner's omission was "a rare instance in which personal negative opinions apparently led to the exclusion of a deserving scientist" from the Nobel. Element 109, Meitnerium, is named in her honor.
German physicist, physicist

Abram Ioffe

Abram Ioffe
(October 29, 1880 - October 14, 1960)
Abram Fyodorovich Ioffe was a prominent Russian/Soviet physicist. He received the Stalin Prize (1942), the Lenin Prize (1960) (posthumously), and the Hero of Socialist Labor (1955). Ioffe was an expert in electromagnetism, radiology, crystals, high-impact physics, thermoelectricity and photoelectricity. He established research laboratories for radioactivity, superconductivity, and nuclear physics, many of which became independent institutes.
Ioffe, Soviet physicist, physicist

James Maxwell

James Maxwell
(June 13, 1831 - November 5, 1879)
James Clerk Maxwell of Glenlair was a Scottish physicist and mathematician. His most prominent achievement was formulating classical electromagnetic theory. This united all previously unrelated observations, experiments and equations of electricity, magnetism and even optics into a consistent theory.
Maxwell, Scottish physicist, physicist, mathematician

Marie Curie

Marie Curie
(November 7, 1867 - July 4, 1934)
Marie Skłodowska Curie was a Polish–French physicist–chemist famous for her pioneering research on radioactivity. She was the first person honored with two Nobel Prizes — in physics and chemistry. She was the first female professor at the University of Paris. She was the first woman to be entombed on her own merits (in 1995) in the Paris Panthéon.
Curie, Polish chemist, chemist, physicist

Vitaly Ginzburg

Vitaly Ginzburg
(October 4, 1916 - November 8, 2009)
Vitaly Lazarevich Ginzburg was a Soviet theoretical physicist, astrophysicist, Nobel laureate, a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences and one of the fathers of Soviet hydrogen bomb. He was the successor to Igor Tamm as head of the Department of Theoretical Physics of the Academy's physics institute, and an outspoken atheist.
Ginzburg, Soviet physicist, physicist

Max Abraham

Max Abraham
(March 26, 1875 - November 16, 1922)
Max Abraham was a German physicist. Abraham was born in Danzig, Imperial Germany to a family of Jewish merchants. His father was Moritz Abraham and his mother was Selma Moritzsohn. Attending the University of Berlin, he studied under Max Planck. He graduated in 1897. For the next three years, Abraham worked as Planck's assistant.
German physicist, physicist

Wolfgang Paul

Wolfgang Paul
(August 10, 1913 - December 7, 1993)
Wolfgang Paul was a German physicist, who co-developed the non-magnetic quadrupole mass filter which laid the foundation for what we now call an ion trap. He shared one-half of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1989 for this work with Hans Georg Dehmelt; the other half of the Prize in that year was awarded to Norman Foster Ramsey.
German physicist, physicist

Joseph Henry

Joseph Henry
(December 17, 1797 - May 13, 1878)
Joseph Henry was an American scientist who served as the first Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, as well as a founding member of the National Institute for the Promotion of Science, a precursor of the Smithsonian Institution.
American physicist, physicist

William Kelvin

William Kelvin
(June 26, 1824 - December 17, 1907)
William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin was a mathematical physicist and engineer. At the University of Glasgow he did important work in the mathematical analysis of electricity and formulation of the first and second laws of thermodynamics, and did much to unify the emerging discipline of physics in its modern form.
Kelvin, physicist

Heinrich Hertz

Heinrich Hertz
(February 22, 1857 - January 1, 1894)
Heinrich Rudolf Hertz was a German physicist who clarified and expanded the electromagnetic theory of light that had been put forth by Maxwell. He was the first to satisfactorily demonstrate the existence of electromagnetic waves by building an apparatus to produce and detect radio waves.
German physicist, physicist

Wilhelm Rontgen

Wilhelm Rontgen
(March 27, 1845 - February 10, 1923)
Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen was a German physicist, who, on 8 November 1895, produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range today known as X-rays or Röntgen rays, an achievement that earned him the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901
German physicist, physicist, Nobel laureate, Rontgen, X-rays

Igor Kurchatov

Igor Kurchatov
(January 12, 1903 - February 7, 1960)
Igor Vasilyevich Kurchatov was a Soviet nuclear physicist who is widely known as the director of the Soviet atomic bomb project.
Soviet physicist, physicist, atomic bomb

Wilhelm Wien

Wilhelm Wien
(January 13, 1864 - August 30, 1928)
Wilhelm Carl Werner Otto Fritz Franz Wien was a German physicist who, in 1893, used theories about heat and electromagnetism to deduce Wien's displacement law, which calculates the emission of a blackbody at any temperature from the emission at any one reference temperature.
German physicist, physicist, Nobel laureate

Alexander Popov

Alexander Popov
(March 16, 1859 - January 13, 1906)
Alexander Stepanovich Popov was a Russian physicist who was the first person to demonstrate the practical application of electromagnetic radio waves.
Russian physicist, physicist, radio

Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein
(March 14, 1879 - April 18, 1955)
Albert Einstein was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of general relativity, effecting a revolution in physics. For this achievement, Einstein is often regarded as the father of modern physics and one of the most prolific intellects in human history. He received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect". The latter was pivotal in establishing quantum theory within physics.
Einstein, German physicist, physicist, Nobel laureate

Georg Ohm

Georg Ohm
(March 16, 1789 - July 6, 1854)
Georg Simon Ohm was a German physicist. As a high school teacher, Ohm began his research with the recently invented electrochemical cell, invented by Italian Count Alessandro Volta. Using equipment of his own creation, Ohm determined that there is a direct proportionality between the potential difference (voltage) applied across a conductor and the resultant electric current. This relationship is known as Ohm's law.
Ohm, German physicist, physicist

Christian Doppler

Christian Doppler
(November 29, 1803 - March 17, 1853)
Christian Andreas Doppler was an Austrian mathematician and physicist.
Austrian physicist, physicist, mathematician

Joseph Fourier

Joseph Fourier
(March 21, 1768 - May 16, 1830)
Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier was a French mathematician and physicist best known for initiating the investigation of Fourier series and their applications to problems of heat transfer and vibrations. The Fourier transform and Fourier's Law are also named in his honour. Fourier is also generally credited with the discovery of the greenhouse effect.
French mathematician, mathematician, physicist

Isaac Newton

Isaac Newton
(January 4, 1643 - March 31, 1727)
Sir Isaac Newton was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist, and theologian, who has been "considered by many to be the greatest and most influential scientist who ever lived."
English physicist, physicist, mathematician, astronomer

Lev Landau

Lev Landau
(January 22, 1908 - April 1, 1968)
Lev Davidovich Landau was a prominent Soviet physicist who made fundamental contributions to many areas of theoretical physics. His accomplishments include the independent co-discovery of the density matrix method in quantum mechanics (alongside John von Neumann), the quantum mechanical theory of diamagnetism, the theory of superfluidity, the theory of second-order phase transitions, the Ginzburg–Landau theory of superconductivity, the theory of Fermi liquid, the explanation of Landau damping in plasma physics, the Landau pole in quantum electrodynamics, and the two-component theory of neutrinos. He received the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physics for his development of a mathematical theory of superfluidity that accounts for the properties of liquid helium II at a temperature below 2.17 K (−270.98 °C).
Soviet physicist, physicist, Nobel laureate

Christiaan Huygens

Christiaan Huygens
(April 14, 1629 - July 8, 1695)
Christiaan Huygens was a prominent Dutch mathematician, astronomer, physicist and horologist. His work included early telescopic studies elucidating the nature of the rings of Saturn and the discovery of its moon Titan, the invention of the pendulum clock and other investigations in timekeeping, and studies of both optics and the centrifugal force.
Dutch mathematician, mathematician, astronomer, physicist, horologist

Franz Karl Achard

Franz Karl Achard
(April 28, 1753 - April 20, 1821)
Franz Karl Achard was a German chemist, physicist and biologist. His principal discovery was the production of sugar from sugar beets.
German chemist, chemist, physicist, biologist

Max von Laue

Max von Laue
(October 9, 1879 - April 24, 1960)
Max Theodor Felix von Laue was a German physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1914 for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals. In addition to his scientific endeavors with contributions in optics, crystallography, quantum theory, superconductivity, and the theory of relativity, he had a number of administrative positions which advanced and guided German scientific research and development during four decades. A strong objector to National Socialism, he was instrumental in re-establishing and organizing German science after World War II.
German physicist, physicist, Nobel laureate

Blaise Pascal

Blaise Pascal
(June 19, 1623 - August 19, 1662)
Blaise Pascal was a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and Catholic philosopher. He was a child prodigy who was educated by his father, a tax collector in Rouen. Pascal's earliest work was in the natural and applied sciences where he made important contributions to the study of fluids, and clarified the concepts of pressure and vacuum by generalizing the work of Evangelista Torricelli. Pascal also wrote in defense of the scientific method.
French mathematician, mathematician, physicist

Jack Kilby

Jack Kilby
(November 8, 1923 - June 20, 2005)
Jack St. Clair Kilby was an American physicist who took part (along with Robert Noyce) in the realization of the first integrated circuit while working at Texas Instruments (TI) in 1958. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics in 2000. He is also the inventor of the handheld calculator and the thermal printer.
American physicist, physicist, Nobel laureate

Sophie Germain

Sophie Germain
(April 1, 1776 - June 27, 1831)
Marie-Sophie Germain was a French mathematician, physicist and philosopher. Despite initial opposition from her parents and difficulties presented by a gender-biased society, she gained education from books in her father's library and from correspondence with famous mathematicians such as LaGrange, Legendre, and Gauss. One of the pioneers of elasticity theory, she won the grand prize from the Paris Academy of Sciences for her essay on the subject.
French mathematician, mathematician, physicist, philosopher

Pyotr Kapitsa

Pyotr Kapitsa
(July 8, 1894 - April 8, 1984)
Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa was a leading Soviet physicist and Nobel Prize in Physics laureate.
Soviet physicist, physicist, Nobel laureate
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