This Day In History
Friday, July 20, 2018
On This Day

1904

Events

January 7, 1904

The distress signal "CQD" is established only to be replaced two years later by "SOS". CQD, transmitted in Morse code as -.-. --.- -.. is one of the first distress signals adopted for radio use. It was announced on January 7, 1904, by "Circular 57" of the Marconi International Marine Communication Company, and became effective, for Marconi installations, beginning February 1, 1904.
distress signal, CQD, SOS

February 8, 1904

A surprise torpedo attack...
A surprise torpedo attack by the Japanese at Port Arthur, China starts the Russo-Japanese War. The Battle of Port Arthur (8–9 February 1904) was the starting battle of the Russo-Japanese War. It began with a surprise night attack by a squadron of Japanese destroyers on the Russian fleet anchored at Port Arthur, Manchuria, and continued with an engagement of major surface combatants the following morning. The battle ended inconclusively, and further skirmishing off Port Arthur continued until May 1904. Losing at Port Arthur for the Russians — and especially for Czar Nicholas II — was not only inconceivable to the world at large but also fraught with dire circumstances for the Imperial Russian regime; the Russian people, from the nobility down to the recently-emancipated serfs, lost confidence in the military; this was a direct causal factor for the Russian Revolution of 1905, and was well-remembered upon yet-more-disastrous defeats in World War I.
Russo-Japanese War, battle, naval battle, Port Arthur

May 21, 1904

The FIFA is founded...
The FIFA is founded in Paris. The Fédération Internationale de Football Association, commonly known by the acronym FIFA, is the international governing body of association football, futsal and beach soccer. Its membership comprises 208 national associations (the United Nations has 193 member states). Its headquarters are in Zurich, Switzerland, and its president is Sepp Blatter. FIFA is responsible for the organisation of football's major international tournaments, notably the World Cup.
FIFA, football

October 27, 1904

City Hall subway station
City Hall subway station
The first underground New York City Subway line opens; the system becomes the biggest in United States, and one of the biggest in world. The New York City Subway is a rapid transit system owned by the City of New York and leased to the New York City Transit Authority, a subsidiary agency of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority and also known as MTA New York City Transit. It is one of the oldest and most extensive public transportation systems in the world, with 468 stations in operation (421, if stations connected by transfers are counted as single stations);209 mi (337 km) of routes, translating into 656 miles (1,056 km) of revenue track; and a total of 842 miles (1,355 km) including non-revenue trackage. In 2010, the subway delivered over 1.604 billion rides, averaging over five million (5,156,913 rides) on weekdays, over three million (3,031,289 rides) on Saturdays, and over two million (2,335,077 rides) on Sundays.
subway, underground, New York City





Births

February 2, 1904
Valery Chkalov

Valery Pavlovich Chkalov was a Russian aircraft test pilot and a Hero of the Soviet Union (1936).
February 3, 1904
Pretty Boy Floyd

Charles Arthur "Pretty Boy" Floyd was an American bank robber. He operated in the West South Central States, and his criminal exploits gained heavy press coverage in the 1930s. Like most other prominent outlaws of that era, he was killed by law enforcement officers. He remains a familiar figure in American popular culture, sometimes seen as notorious, but at other times viewed as a tragic figure, partly a victim of hard times.
February 29, 1904
Glenn Miller

Alton Glenn Miller was an American jazz musician (trombone), arranger, composer, and bandleader in the swing era. He was one of the best-selling recording artists from 1939 to 1943, leading one of the best known "Big Bands". Miller's notable recordings include "In the Mood", "Moonlight Serenade", "Pennsylvania 6-5000", "Chattanooga Choo Choo", "A String of Pearls", "At Last", "(I've Got a Gal In) Kalamazoo", "American Patrol", "Tuxedo Junction", and "Little Brown Jug".
May 6, 1904
Max Mallowan

Sir Max Edgar Lucien Mallowan was a prominent British archaeologist, specialising in ancient Middle Eastern history, and the second husband of Dame Agatha Christie.
May 11, 1904
Salvador Dali

Salvador Domènec Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, Marquis de Púbol, commonly known as Salvador Dalí, was a prominent Spanish surrealist painter born in Figueres, Spain.
May 17, 1904
Jean Gabin

Jean Gabin was a French actor.
August 22, 1904
Deng Xiaoping

Deng Xiaoping was a Chinese politician, statesman, and diplomat. As leader of the Communist Party of China, Deng was a reformer who led China towards a market economy. While Deng never held office as the head of state, head of government or General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, he nonetheless served as the paramount leader of the People's Republic of China from 1978 to 1992.
October 2, 1904
Graham Greene

Henry Graham Greene was an English author, playwright and literary critic. His works explore the ambivalent moral and political issues of the modern world. Greene was notable for his ability to combine serious literary acclaim with widespread popularity.

Deaths

May 10, 1904
Henry Morton Stanley

Sir Henry Morton Stanley, GCB, born John Rowlands, was a Welsh journalist and explorer famous for his exploration of Africa and his search for David Livingstone. Upon finding Livingstone, Stanley allegedly uttered the now-famous greeting, "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?"
July 15, 1904
Anton Chekhov

Anton Pavlovich Chekhov was a Russian physician, dramatist and author who is considered to be among the greatest writers of short stories in history. His career as a dramatist produced four classics and his best short stories are held in high esteem by writers and critics. Chekhov practised as a doctor throughout most of his literary career: "Medicine is my lawful wife", he once said, "and literature is my mistress."
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