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St Scholastica Day riot
in 1354The St. Scholastica's Day riot breaks out in Oxford.
The seed of the riot was an altercation in the Swindlestock Tavern (now the site of the Santander Bank on Carfax) between two students of the University of Oxford, Walter Spryngeheuse and Roger de Chesterfield, and the taverner, John Croidon. They complained about the quality of drinks, which led to an exchange of rude words that ended with the students throwing their drinks at the taverner's face and beating him up. Retaliation for this incident led to armed clashes between locals and students. The mayor of Oxford, John de Bereford, asked the chancellor of the university, John Charlton, to arrest these two students, to no avail. Instead, two hundred students supported Spryngeheuse and Chesterfield, who allegedly assaulted the mayor and others. A riot broke out and lasted the following two days, which left 63 scholars and perhaps 30 locals dead. The scholars were eventually routed.
First Anglo-Sikh War
in 1846Battle of Sobraon – British defeat Sikhs in final battle of the war.
The Battle of Sobraon was fought on 10 February 1846, between the forces of the British East India Company and the Sikh Khalsa Army, the army of the Sikh Empire of the Punjab. The Sikhs were completely defeated, making this the decisive battle of the First Anglo-Sikh War.
Captured American U2 spy-plane pilot Gary Powers is exchanged for captured Soviet spy Rudolf Abel.
Glienicke Bridge - "Bridge of Spies"
The exchange took place on the Glienicke Bridge that links West Berlin with Potsdam. The Glienicke Bridge became famous during the Cold War as the "Bridge of Spies". At precisely the same time, at Checkpoint Charlie, Frederic Pryor was released by the East German Stasi into the waiting arms of his father. A few days later Fisher, reunited with his wife, Elena and daughter, Evelyn, flew home. It suited the KGB, for the sake of its own reputation to portray "Abel's" nine years of being an undetected agent in the U.S., as a triumph by a dedicated NKVD member.
, Rudolf Abel
, Gary Powers
, Bridge of Spies
, Glienicke Bridge
Boris Leonidovich Pasternak was a Russian language poet, novelist, and literary translator. In his native Russia, Pasternak's anthology My Sister Life, is one of the most influential collections ever published in the Russian language. Furthermore, Pasternak's theatrical translations of Goethe, Schiller, Pedro Calderón de la Barca, and William Shakespeare remain deeply popular with Russian audiences.
Bertolt Brecht was a German poet, playwright, and theatre director.
Charles-Louis de Secondat, baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu, generally referred to as simply Montesquieu, was a French social commentator and political thinker who lived during the Enlightenment.
Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin was a Russian author of the Romantic era who is considered by many to be the greatest Russian poet and the founder of modern Russian literature.
Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen was a German physicist, who, on 8 November 1895, produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range today known as X-rays or Röntgen rays, an achievement that earned him the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901
Arthur Asher Miller was an American playwright and essayist. He was a prominent figure in American theatre, writing dramas that include plays such as All My Sons (1947), Death of a Salesman (1949), The Crucible (1953), and A View from the Bridge (one-act, 1955; revised two-act, 1956).