This Day In History
Thursday, October 28, 2021
On This Day


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in 1618

Johannes Kepler discovers the third law of planetary motion. In astronomy, Kepler's laws give a description of the motion of planets around the Sun. Kepler's laws are: 1. The orbit of every planet is an ellipse with the Sun at one of the two foci. 2. A line joining a planet and the Sun sweeps out equal areas during equal intervals of time. 3. The square of the orbital period of a planet is directly proportional to the cube of the semi-major axis of its orbit.
Kepler, planetary motion

in 1817

The New York Stock...
The New York Stock Exchange is founded. The origin of the NYSE can be traced to May 17, 1792, when the Buttonwood Agreement was signed by 24 stockbrokers outside of 68 Wall Street in New York under a buttonwood tree on Wall Street. On March 8, 1817, the organization drafted a constitution and renamed itself the "New York Stock & Exchange Board." Anthony Stockholm was elected the Exchange's first president.
New York Stock Exchange, New York City

in 1868

Sakai incident.
Sakai incident. The Sakai incident was the killing of 11 French sailors from the French corvette Dupleix in the port of Sakai near Osaka, Japan in 1868. On March 8, 1868, a skiff sent to Sakai was attacked by samurai of the Tosa clan; 11 sailors and Midshipman Guillou were killed (a monument in Kobe is now erected to their memory). At the time, the port of Sakai was not open to foreign ships, and the Tosa troops were in charge of policing the city. The French captain Dupetit Thouars protested so strongly that an indemnity of 150,000 dollars was agreed upon, the culprits were arrested, and 20 of them were sentenced to death by seppuku at Myōkoku-ji. However, the style of execution was so shocking to the French that, after 11 were carried out, the captain requested a pardon, sparing nine of the samurai. This allowed the French and Japanese parties to reconcile. This incident was dramatised in a famous short story, Sakai Jiken, by Mori Ōgai.
Sakai incident, Osaka, Japan


in 1714
Emanuel Bach

Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach was a German classical period musician and composer, the fifth child and second (surviving) son of Johann Sebastian Bach and Maria Barbara Bach. His second name was given in honor of his godfather Georg Philipp Telemann, a friend of Emanuel's father.
in 1911
Alan Hovhaness

Alan Hovhaness was an Armenian-American composer.


in 1844
Charles XIV John of Sweden

Charles XIV & III John, also Carl John, Swedish and Norwegian: Karl Johan was King of Sweden (as Charles XIV John) and King of Norway (as Charles III John) from 1818 until his death. Before he became king, he was also the Sovereign Prince of Pontecorvo, in Southern Italy, between 1806 and 1810.
in 1874
Millard Fillmore

Millard Fillmore was the 13th President of the United States (1850–1853) and the last member of the Whig Party to hold the office of president. As Zachary Taylor's Vice President, he assumed the presidency after Taylor's death.
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