in 1214Philip II of France defeats John of England.
The Battle of Bouvines, 27 July 1214, was a conclusive medieval battle ending the twelve year old Angevin-Flanders War that was important to the early development of both the French state by confirming the French crown's sovereignty over the Angevin lands of Brittany and Normandy. Philip Augustus of France defeated an army consisting of Imperial, English and Flemish soldiers, led by Otto IV of Germany. Other leaders included count Ferrand of Flanders, William de Longespee and Renaud of Boulogne. The defeat was so decisive that Otto was deposed and replaced by Frederick II Hohenstaufen, Ferrand and Renaud were captured and imprisoned and King John of England was forced to seal the Magna Carta by his discontented barons. Philip was himself able to take undisputed control of most continental territories of John of England, Otto's maternal uncle and ally.
Mikhail Yuryevich Lermontov, a Russian Romantic writer, poet and painter, sometimes called "the poet of the Caucasus", has become the most important Russian poet after Alexander Pushkin's death in 1837. Lermontov is considered the supreme poet of Russian literature side by side with Pushkin and the greatest figure of Russian Romanticism. His influence on later Russian literature is still felt in modern times, not only through his poetry, but also through his prose, which has founded the tradition of Russian psychological novel.
Fyodor Ivanovich Tyutchev is generally considered the last of three great Romantic poets of Russia, following Alexander Pushkin and Mikhail Lermontov.