(September 6, 1729 - January 4, 1786)
Moses Mendelssohn was a German Jewish philosopher to whose ideas the renaissance of European Jews, Haskalah (the Jewish Enlightenment) is indebted. Although himself a practising orthodox Jew, he has been referred to as the father of Reform Judaism.
(April 22, 1724 - February 12, 1804)
Immanuel Kant was a German philosopher from Königsberg (today Kaliningrad of Russia), researching, lecturing and writing on philosophy and anthropology at the end of the 18th Century Enlightenment.
(May 5, 1818 - March 14, 1883)
Karl Heinrich Marx was a German philosopher, economist, sociologist, historian, journalist, and revolutionary socialist. His ideas played a significant role in the development of social science and the socialist political movement. He published various books during his lifetime, with the most notable being The Communist Manifesto
(1848) and Capital
(1867–1894); some of his works were co-written with his friend and fellow German revolutionary socialist, Friedrich Engels.