October 24, 1648The Peace of Westphalia is signed, marking the end of the Thirty Years' War.
The Peace of Westphalia was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October of 1648 in Osnabrück and Münster. These treaties ended the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) in the Holy Roman Empire, and the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) between Spain and the Dutch Republic, with Spain formally recognizing the independence of the Dutch Republic.
April 15, 1632Swedes under Gustavus Adolphus defeat the Holy Roman Empire during the Thirty Years' War.
The Battle of Rain (also called the Battle of the River Lech or Battle of Lech) was fought on April 15, 1632, as part of the Thirty Years' War. The forces involved in this conflict were 40,000 Swedish troops under Gustavus Adolphus and 25,000 Catholic League troops under Count Johan Tzerclaes of Tilly. It was the second meeting between the two legendary generals (see First Breitenfeld when Tilly received the first setback of his long and storied career) and like at Breitenfeld, Tilly lost when Gustavus forced the River Lech under the cover of his superb artillery, and as there, Tilly was wounded several times and fell during the battle and was carried from the field by his men, (who called him Father Tilly), — only this time, he would not recover from his wounds.