(December 14, 1546 - October 24, 1601)
Tycho Brahe, born Tyge Ottesen Brahe, was a Danish nobleman known for his accurate and comprehensive astronomical and planetary observations. Coming from Scania, then part of Denmark, now part of modern-day Sweden, Tycho was well known in his lifetime as an astronomer and alchemist.
(November 5, 1906 - August 30, 2004)
Fred Lawrence Whipple was an American astronomer, who worked at the Harvard College Observatory for over 70 years. Amongst his achievements, he discovered some asteroids and comets, came up with the "dirty snowball" cometary hypothesis, and designed the Whipple shield.
(September 15, 1736 - November 12, 1793)
Jean-Sylvain Bailly was a French astronomer and orator, one of the leaders of the early part of the French Revolution. He served as the mayor of Paris from 1789 to 1791 and was ultimately guillotined during the Reign of Terror.
(November 15, 1738 - August 25, 1822)
Sir Frederick William Herschel was a German-born British astronomer, technical expert, and composer. Born in Hanover, Wilhelm first followed his father into the Military Band of Hanover, but emigrated to Britain at age 19.
(December 27, 1571 - November 15, 1630)
Johannes Kepler was a German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer. A key figure in the 17th century scientific revolution, he is best known for his eponymous laws of planetary motion, codified by later astronomers, based on his works Astronomia nova, Harmonices Mundi, and Epitome of Copernican Astronomy. These works also provided one of the foundations for Isaac Newton's theory of universal gravitation.
(November 20, 1889 - September 28, 1953)
Edwin Powell Hubble was an American astronomer who profoundly changed the understanding of the universe by confirming the existence of galaxies other than our own, the Milky Way.
, American astronomer
(May 18, 1048 - December 4, 1131)
Omar Khayyám was a Persian polymath: philosopher, mathematician, astronomer and poet. He also wrote treatises on mechanics, geography, mineralogy, music, climatology and theology.
(February 22, 1824 - December 23, 1907)
Pierre Jules César Janssen, usually known in French as Jules Janssen, was a French astronomer who, along with the English scientist Joseph Norman Lockyer, is credited with discovering the gas helium.
(August 19, 1646 - December 31, 1719)
Sir John Flamsteed was an English astronomer and the first Astronomer Royal. He catalogued over 3000 stars
(February 15, 1564 - January 8, 1642)
Galileo Galilei was an Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution. His achievements include improvements to the telescope and consequent astronomical observations and support for Copernicanism. Galileo has been called the "father of modern observational astronomy", the "father of modern physics", the "father of science", and "the Father of Modern Science".
, Italian scientist
(January 10, 1573 - December 26, 1624)
Simon Marius was a German astronomer.
Joseph Louis Lagrange
(January 25, 1736 - April 10, 1813)
Joseph-Louis Lagrange, born Giuseppe Lodovico (Luigi) Lagrangia, was a mathematician and astronomer born in Turin, Piedmont, who lived part of his life in Prussia and part in France.
(February 19, 1473 - May 24, 1543)
Nicolaus Copernicus was a Renaissance astronomer and the first person to formulate a comprehensive heliocentric cosmology which displaced the Earth from the center of the universe.
(March 13, 1855 - November 12, 1916)
Percival Lawrence Lowell was a businessman, author, mathematician, and astronomer who fueled speculation that there were canals on Mars, founded the Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona, and formed the beginning of the effort that led to the discovery of Pluto 14 years after his death. The choice of the name Pluto and its symbol were partly influenced by his initials PL.
(December 4, 1821 - March 16, 1889)
Ernst Wilhelm Leberecht Tempel, normally known as Wilhelm Tempel, was a German astronomer who worked in Marseille until the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War in 1870, then later moved to Italy.
(March 23, 1749 - March 5, 1827)
Pierre-Simon, marquis de Laplace was a French mathematician and astronomer whose work was pivotal to the development of mathematical astronomy and statistics. He summarized and extended the work of his predecessors in his five volume Mécanique Céleste (Celestial Mechanics) (1799–1825). This work translated the geometric study of classical mechanics to one based on calculus, opening up a broader range of problems. In statistics, the so-called Bayesian interpretation of probability was mainly developed by Laplace.
(July 13, 1527 - March 26, 1609)
John Dee was an English mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, occultist, navigator, imperialist and consultant to Queen Elizabeth I. He devoted much of his life to the study of alchemy, divination and Hermetic philosophy.
(January 4, 1643 - March 31, 1727)
Sir Isaac Newton was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist, and theologian, who has been "considered by many to be the greatest and most influential scientist who ever lived."
(April 14, 1629 - July 8, 1695)
Christiaan Huygens was a prominent Dutch mathematician, astronomer, physicist and horologist. His work included early telescopic studies elucidating the nature of the rings of Saturn and the discovery of its moon Titan, the invention of the pendulum clock and other investigations in timekeeping, and studies of both optics and the centrifugal force.
Garrett P Serviss
(March 24, 1851 - May 25, 1929)
Garrett Putnam Serviss was an astronomer, popularizer of astronomy, and early science fiction writer. Serviss was born in upstate New York, and majored in science at Cornell.
(July 11, 1732 - April 4, 1807)
Joseph Jérôme Lefrançois de Lalande was a French astronomer and writer.