February 13, 1880Thomas Edison observes the Edison effect.
Thermionic emission (Edison effect) is the heat-induced flow of charge carriers from a surface or over a potential-energy barrier. This occurs because the thermal energy given to the carrier overcomes the binding potential, also known as work function of the metal. The charge carriers can be electrons or ions, and in older literature are sometimes referred to as "thermions". After emission, a charge will initially be left behind in the emitting region that is equal in magnitude and opposite in sign to the total charge emitted. But if the emitter is connected to a battery, then this charge left behind will be neutralized by charge supplied by the battery, as the emitted charge carriers move away from the emitter, and finally the emitter will be in the same state as it was before emission. The thermionic emission of electrons is also known as thermal electron emission
June 7, 1880The Battle of Arica, assault and capture of Morro de Arica (Arica Cape), that ended the Campaña del Desierto (Desert Campaign).
The Battle of Arica, also known as Assault and Capture of Arica Cape, was a battle in the War of the Pacific. It was fought on 7 June 1880, between the forces of Chile and Peru. After the Battle of Tacna, and the following Bolivian retirement of the war, Peru had to stand alone for the rest of the conflict. The need for a port near to the location of the army, in order to supply and reinforce the troops and evacuate wounded, made the Chilean command put its attention on the remaining Peruvian stronghold in the Tacna Department. The Chilean army, led by Colonel Pedro Lagos, launched a simultaneous assault from both sides, taking the defenses on a bayonet charge, and captured the Morro de Arica (English: Arica Cape) from the defending Peruvian troops under the command of Colonel Francisco Bolognesi in a last attack up the hill. In this fight the Peruvian Commander died along with several officers and more than 1,000 men.
January 2, 1880
Vasily Alekseyevich Degtyaryov was a Russian weapons designer, Major General of the Engineering and Artillery Service, Doctor of Technical Sciences (1940), and Hero of Socialist Labor (1940; he received the second such award in the history just two weeks later than Joseph Stalin himself). He became a CPSU member in 1941.
October 29, 1880
Abram Fyodorovich Ioffe was a prominent Russian/Soviet physicist. He received the Stalin Prize (1942), the Lenin Prize (1960) (posthumously), and the Hero of Socialist Labor (1955). Ioffe was an expert in electromagnetism, radiology, crystals, high-impact physics, thermoelectricity and photoelectricity. He established research laboratories for radioactivity, superconductivity, and nuclear physics, many of which became independent institutes.
November 28, 1880
Alexander Alexandrovich Blok was a Russian lyrical poet.
December 22, 1880
Mary Anne (Mary Ann, Marian) Evans better known by her pen name George Eliot, was an English novelist, journalist and translator, and one of the leading writers of the Victorian era. She is the author of seven novels, including Adam Bede (1859), The Mill on the Floss (1860), Silas Marner (1861), Middlemarch (1871–72), and Daniel Deronda (1876), most of them set in provincial England and well known for their realism and psychological insight.