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March 1, 1961President of the United States John F. Kennedy establishes the Peace Corps.
The Peace Corps is an American volunteer program run by the United States Government, as well as a government agency of the same name. The stated mission of the Peace Corps includes three goals: providing technical assistance; helping people outside the United States to understand US culture; and helping Americans to understand the cultures of other countries. The work is generally related to social and economic development. Each program participant (aka Peace Corps Volunteer) is an American citizen, typically with a college degree, who works abroad for a period of 24 months after three months of training. Volunteers work with governments, schools, non-profit organizations, non-government organizations, and entrepreneurs in education, hunger, business, information technology, agriculture, and the environment. After 24 months of service, volunteers can request an extension of service.
, Peace Corps
March 9, 1961Sputnik 9 successfully launches, carrying a human dummy nicknamed Ivan Ivanovich, and demonstrating that Soviet Union was ready to begin human spaceflight.
Ivan Ivanovich first flew into space on Sputnik 9 on March 9, 1961, accompanied by a dog named Chernushka, various reptiles, and eighty mice and guinea pigs, some of which were stuffed inside his body. To test the spacecraft's communication systems, an automatic recording of a choir was placed in Ivanovich's body - this way, any radio stations who heard the recording would understand it was not a real person. Ivan was also used to test the landing system upon return to Earth, when he was successfully ejected from the capsule and parachuted to the ground.
, Ivan Ivanovich
April 30, 1961K-19, the first Soviet nuclear submarine equipped with nuclear missiles, is commissioned.
K-19 was one of the first two Soviet submarines of the 658, 658м, 658с class (NATO reporting name Hotel-class submarine), the first generation nuclear submarine equipped with nuclear ballistic missiles, specifically the R-13 (missile). Its keel was laid down on 17 October 1958, christened on 8 April 1959 and launched on 11 October 1959. Its naval flag was first raised on 12 July 1960, and it completed all acceptance tests on 12 November 1960. Its official commissioning took place on 30 April 1961. Due to the large number of accidents during its construction and service life, it gained an unofficial nickname "Hiroshima" among naval sailors and officers. Over its service life, it ran 332,396 miles during 20,223 working hours.
, nuclear submarine
October 27, 1961NASA launches the first Saturn I rocket in Mission Saturn-Apollo 1.
The Saturn I was the United States' first heavy-lift dedicated space launcher, a rocket designed specifically to launch large payloads into low Earth orbit. Most of the rocket's power came from a clustered lower stage consisting of tanks taken from older rocket designs and strapped together to make a single large booster, leading critics to jokingly refer to it as "Cluster's Last Stand".
January 17, 1961
Patrice Émery Lumumba was a Congolese independence leader and the first legally elected Prime Minister of the Republic of the Congo after he helped win its independence from Belgium in June 1960. Only twelve weeks later, Lumumba's government was deposed in a coup during the Congo Crisis. He was subsequently imprisoned and executed by firing squad, an act that was committed with the assistance of the governments of Belgium and the United States, for which the Belgian government officially apologized in 2002.
October 4, 1961
Max Weber was a Jewish-American painter who worked in the style of cubism before migrating to Jewish themes towards the end of his life.